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A commander may be forgiven for being defeated but never for being surprised This maxim is among

’“A commander may be forgiven for being defeated, but never for being surprised.” This maxim is among the first to be impressed upon new lieutenants.'

Cooper, Jeff. Principles of Personal Defense. Paladin Press, 2006, loc. 15.

Call it alertness, situational awareness, or preemptive self-defense; it all amounts to the need to be offensively engaged in potential conflicts before they occur. It is notable that this foundational precept of conflict is markedly absent from most martial arts and self-defense courses.