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Now an army is exposed to six several calamities not arising from natural causes but from faults

·1 min

“Now an army is exposed to six several calamities, not arising from natural causes, but from faults for which the general is responsible.”

“The Art of War by Active 6th Century B.C. Sunzi.” Gutenberg.Org, Accessed 16 July 2021, loc. 112.

These failures are the result of mixtures of identifiable and avoidable conditions. These are the (internal to the army) corollary signs to Sun Tzu’s list of external signs in IX 19-45.